TeachLearn:Assessment terminology

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Based on EIT Draft of Assessment terminology, structures and glossary (2002)

Assessment Cognitive areas and verbs

Cognitive Area Explanation Examples of verbs to use
Knowledge What the student can recognise and recall Define,Describe,Identify,Outline,Recount,Indicate,List,Name,State
Comprehension Demonstrate an understanding of concepts and how , where and/ where they might be applied Account for,Comment on, Compare, Contrast, Demonstrate, Describe, Discuss, Explain, Give examples, Group, Illustrate, Interpret, Summarise
Application Demonstrate ability to apply skills and knowledge to a given situation Adapt, Apply, Assess, Classify, Collect Data, Compare, Construct, Contrast, Develop, Examine, Give examples, Modify, Prepare, Produce, Relate, Show
Problem Solving and Decision Making Decide on and/or apply a process or model to solve problems Analyse, Choose, Conclude, Decide, Generate, Identify, Interpret, Investigate, Recommend, Select, Solve
Synthesis Blend diverse elements to create new ideas Adapt, Analyse, Categorise, Collate, Combine, Create, Design, Develop, Devise, Hypothesise, Integrate, Justify, Predict, Reconstruct, Reproduce, Review, Revise, Synthesise
Critical Evaluation Appraise another's work or ideas, supported with sound reasoning, presented in a coherent arguement Argue, Assess, Conclude, Critically comment, Criticise, Critique, Defend, Differentiate, Evaluate, Interpret, Justify, Prove, Validate
A representation of the type and quantity of Cognitive assessment components at each level

Glossary of keywords

Key Word Explanation
Account for Give reasons and explain why it happened
Adapt Alter or modify to make suitable for other purposes
Analyse Identify the main ideas of the subject. Examine them in detail, then describe the relationship between them.
Apply Link relevant theory or processes to a practical situation
Argue Present convincing, soundly reasoned case of why a subject is suppored or opposed. Try to anticipate and answer objections to arguments
Assess Critically judge the value of a subject. Goes beyond discussion and analysis by carefully weighing up evidence and putting forward an opinion about the overall value.
Categorise Place ideas, concepts, theories, etc into a class or division
Choose Select item(s) from a greater number
Classify Assign item(s) to a class or category
Collate Lower levels: Assemble information from a variety of sources
Higher levels: Analyse and compare (texts, statements, etc.) to identify points of agreement and differences
Collect Data Seek and assemble facts
Combine Blend different elements into something new
Comment on Discuss, explain and give your opinion on the ideas expressed. Use analogies or examples to support your responses
Compare Examine qualities of characteristics of a subject and emphasise similarities and differences
Conclude Make a final inference based on previous premises (statements)
Construct Build, form or fit parts together to create something new
Contrast Show how two subjects differ when compared to each other. Emphasise differences between elements
Create Make or cause something new or original
Critically comment Fully analyse the merit or truth of the facts or views mentioned, discussing both their limitations and positive points. Support this judgement with evidence
Criticise Fully analyse the merit or truth of the facts or views mentioned, discussing both their limitations and positive points. Support this judgement with evidence
Critique Fully analyse the merit or truth of the facts or views mentioned, discussing both their limitations and positive points. Support this judgement with evidence
Decide Make a decision as a result of careful consideration
Defend Support or uphold an argument. Speak or write in favor of.
Define Clearly state the precise meaning of a subject or state the terms of reference. Give the limits or boundaries of the definition.
Demonstrate Show, prove or clarify using reasoning, evidence and examples. Show ability to apply theory.
Describe Present a detailed and accurate account of an event or phenomenon. At higher levels may require synthesising or restructuring
Design Produce a plan, sketch or concept for the construction of a product or process
  1. Create the existence of something new (ideas, strategies, processes, etc)
  2. Make bigger, fuller, more elaborate
Devise Plan or invent by careful thought
Differentiate Discriminate or find differences between items
Discuss Analyse a problem from different points of view and come to a well-reasoned conclusion
Evaluate Examine the various sides of a subject, citing both positive and negative features. Then make a judgement as to its significance, value, importance or quality
Examine Present the main ideas in depth and investigate the implications. Debate advantages and disadvantages; compare and argue merits.
Explain Give details about the subject and give reasons for a particular situation. Account for causes, results and implications. Provide examples to support explanation.
Generate Think of new ideas or new meanings for a subject
Give examples Provide illustrations of characteristics under discussion
Group Classify or place into categories
Hypothesise Present an idea as a starting point for further investigation. Put forward an idea to be proved or disproved
  1. Select an item through consideration of a range of options
  2. Single out features of a subject and discuss
Illustrate Demonstrate point(s) using diagrams, figures, statistics or concrete examples
Indicate Point out, make known, or show
Integrate Pull together, in a logical way, subjects that have not been previously related
Interpret Lower level: Demonstrate understanding of topic by explaining meaning in own words
Higher Level: Also translate, solve or comment upon the subject and evaluate it in terms of learner judgement or reaction
Investigate Systematically inquire into or examine a topic
Justify Provide evidence or give reasons for decisions or conclusions. Should be presented in a way that will convince teh reader or listener
List Write an itemised series of concise statements
Modify Make partial changes to an existing framework
Name Specify the correct term to denote an object, idea, etc
Outline Describe the main features or general principles of a subject without giving minor details
Predict Make a statement about what is likely to happen in the future
Prepare Make or get ready for use or consideration
  1. Put forward for consideration or use (produce evidence)
  2. Manufacture from raw materials
Prove Confirm or verify the truth of a statement by factual evidence, logical reasoning, experiment or test
Recommend Advise a course of action; provide strategies or suggestions for improvement
  1. Reorganise,, reform, rebuild
  2. Assemble evidence to create an impression of past events
Recount Give detailed account of happenings
Relate Describe the connection between one thing and another. Show the relationship by emphasising these links and associations
Reproduce Present a copy or representation of something
Review Critically examine, analyse and comment on the major points of a subject
Revise Consider or re-examine (an opinion, text process, etc) and then improve or amend
Select Choose the most suitable
Show Demonstrate knowledge or skill
Solve Suggest an answer to a problem
State Briefly describe the subject in precise terms or set down the exact meaning
Summarise Give the main ideas in a condensed form; trace the argument briefly without details and examples
Synthesise Combine different elements in a coherent whole
Validate Provide sound, defensible, well-grounded reasoning to support the argument

Icon References.png References

TeachLearn:Assessment terminology. (2018). In virtualMV's ( Michael Verhaart ) wiki. Retrieved November 14, 2018, from http://www.virtualmv.com/wiki/index.php?title=TeachLearn%3AAssessment_terminology    (zotero)