Research: APA guidelines

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This page contains a list of things that I have found can be confusing or not well understood

Some resources

The use of author initials


  • Only use initials in the references.
    • Verhaart, M., & Hagen-Hall, K. (2009). ...

The use of &

There is a lot of confusion when using '&' and 'and' for multiple authors, the rule is simply:

  • Use & when an inline citation is in brackets , and in the references
    • ...(Verhaart & Hagen-Hall, 2009)
    • Verhaart, M., & Hagen-Hall, K. (2009). ...
  • Use and in an inline citation when the date is in brackets
    • ...Verhaart and Hagen-Hall (2009) ...



Warning: Wikipedia is a community written resource and as such its accuracy may be questioned - so use with caution.

  • Citing a page in wikipedia (in the toolbox at the left of the page you may find a link cite this article - though as at Sep 2009 there appears an error in the retrieved date)
  • Citing wikipedia itself
    • Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. (2004, July 22). FL: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved August 10, 2009, from

Audio visual materials


Meyer, A.S. (1994). Genetics. In Encarta encyclopedia [CD-ROM]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation.
NZ Video Tours (1995). New Zealand Coast to Coast. [CD-ROM]. Reed Publishing (NZ) Ltd

Ref: University of New South Wales (n.d.)[2]

Caption Tables & Figures from Another Source

It is often better to redraw or reconstruct tables or images otherwise you need to seek the permission of the original author/publisher.

Note.  From “Title of Article,” by F. M. Author and C. D. Author, year, Title of Journal, volume, p. xx.  
Copyright year by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission.

(Strahan, 2009)[3]

Icon References.png References

  1. Degelman, D. (2010) APA style essentials. Retrieved October 4, 2010 from
  2. University of New South Wales (n.d.)UNSW Biomedical Library APA Reference Guide. Retrieved March 17, 2009 from
  3. Strahan, M. (2009) Retrieved March 16, 2009 from

Research: APA guidelines. (2018). In virtualMV's ( Michael Verhaart ) wiki. Retrieved November 14, 2018, from    (zotero)